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World Thyroid Day- Understanding all about Thyroid Disorders


Every year on May 25, World Thyroid Day is celebrated worldwide in an effort to increase awareness and understanding of thyroid disorders, including their signs, causes, and treatments. World Thyroid Day was established in 2008 after being proposed to be observed by the European Thyroid Association (ETA). May 25 was selected as the date for World Thyroid Day because it coincides with the establishment of the European Thyroid Association (ETA) in 1965

World Thyroid Day

World Thyroid Day is a global healthcare event that aims to recognize the burden of thyroid disorders, comprehend patient experiences, and honour those who have worked to understand and treat thyroid conditions on a global scale. Thyroid problems are one of the most common health concerns faced by many people globally.

To create awareness this World Thyroid Day 2023, let’s learn more about the various thyroid disorders. So, please keep reading.

What are thyroid diseases?

Thyroid diseases are diseases where the thyroid gland produces either too much or too less of thyroid hormones. Thyroid diseases and thyroid hormone fluctuations can affect various bodily functions, such as digestion, weight, heart rate and mood. The thyroid is a small gland present in the neck that resembles a butterfly. The thyroid gland makes hormones that are vital in controlling a variety of body processes. Its main work is to control how fast the body transforms the food we consume into energy.

What are the different types of thyroid disorders?

There are various thyroid disorders affecting many people globally. Some of these thyroid disorders may include the following, 


Hypothyroidism is a type of thyroid condition where the thyroid gland produces insufficient or too less amount of thyroid hormone. This is called an underactive thyroid. As a result of less thyroid hormone in the body, various body functions, such as metabolism, slows down. Hashimoto’s disease which is an autoimmune condition is one of the primary causes of hypothyroidism. In a person with hypothyroidism, the following symptoms may be seen, 

  • Fatigue 
  • Dry skin 
  • Coarse hair 
  • Constipation 
  • Increases sensitivity or intolerance to cold 
  • Depression 
  • Fertility issues 
  • Heavy mensuration 
  • Irregular periods 
  • Weight gain
  • Slow heart rate 
  • A hoarse voice 
  • Weak muscles 
  • Joint pain


Hyperthyroidism is also a very commonly occurring thyroid condition. In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of the thyroid hormone. This excessive amount of thyroid hormone in the body leads to speeding up certain body functions such as metabolism. Hyperthyroidism is a condition that is characterized by an overactive thyroid. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism may affect the entire body. The symptoms may not be very prominent as they begin slowly. However, as their metabolism speeds up, the following symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be seen, 

  • Weight loss
  • Irregular and rapid heartbeat 
  • Profuse sweating 
  • Muscle weakness 
  • Diarrhoea 
  • Nervousness and anxiety 
  • Warm skin 
  • Loss of hair 
  • Increase in appetite 
  • Sleep problems 
  • Goitre (neck enlargement and swelling)
  • Sleep problems 


Goitre is a condition that occurs when the thyroid gland enlarges. As a result of this thyroid enlargement, the neck looks swollen or lumpy. A goitre is usually seen in the lower front portion of the neck. One of the most common causes of goitre is the deficiency of iodine in the body. Apart from a swollen neck, the following symptoms may be seen in the goitre.

  • Hoarse voice
  • Wheezing and trouble breathing 
  • A persistent cough that stays for longer than usual 
  • Trouble swallowing

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune condition. It is a condition that occurs when the immune system attacks the thyroid tissue. This thereby leads to inflammation and gland damage. Various factors, such as high iodine intake, genetic factors etc, may cause this condition. The various symptoms of this condition may include the following,  

  • Hair fall
  • Weight gain 
  • Muscle weakness
  • Menstrual irregularities 
  • Hair thinning and brittleness 
  • Dry skin 
  • Fatigue 

Thyroid cancer 

Thyroid cancer happens when the cells present in the thyroid start proliferating abnormally. Thyroid cancer may not cause any symptoms in the early stages. But, as the cancer progresses, the following symptoms may be seen in the patient, 

  • Swelling or a lump in the neck 
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Hoarse voice 
  • Neck and throat pain
  • The appearance of swollen lymph nodes in the neck

Diagnosis of thyroid disorders 

Upon experiencing any unusual symptoms that may indicate the presence of any of the above-mentioned thyroid disorders, it is important to show them to a doctor. The doctor will conduct certain tests to diagnose thyroid disorders. Some of these tests may include,

  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Thyroid ultrasound
  • Thyroid scan
  • Biopsy

Treatment for thyroid disorders 

Depending on the type of thyroid disorder, the treatment will vary. Some of the treatments may include medications, radioactive iodine and surgery. In addition to these treatments, healthy lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercising, avoiding alcohol consumption, not smoking, and managing stress and sleep effectively may also help in managing thyroid disorders.

World Thyroid Day


Thyroid disorders are very common and can happen to anyone. Hence, on World Thyroid Day 2023, create awareness about the different types of thyroid disorders and their symptoms to help people get a timely diagnosis. Thyroid disorders can cause complications when left untreated. Hence, it is important to encourage people this World Thyroid Day 2023 to get diagnosed on time, take their medicines as prescribed and follow a healthy lifestyle. 

At Ayu Health Hospitals, our team of highly skilled, experienced and qualified experts provide accurate diagnosis and the best treatment plans for thyroid disorders. Our treatment and care are not only the best but also affordable and patient-centric. 

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About the Author

Dr goel
Dr. S. Goel
MBBS PGDCM FID MBAHHM at Ayu Health | Website | + posts

Dr. S. Goel  is a renowned Internal Medicine Specialist currently practicing at Ayu Health, Bangalore.  He is a Specialist in Internal Medicine, Diabetes HTN, Paediatric Care, and Family Medicine.

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