Diabetes has become one of the most common health conditions across geographies and different age groups. A study suggests that a large portion of the urban population in Bangalore is affected by diabetes. Out of 3691 results of free tests conducted in Bangalore, about 60% of them tested positive for diabetes. This disease interferes with energy levels, diet and other daily activities. 

Continue reading to know more about the disease, including types, causes, and treatment.

Types of Diabetes 

There are two types of Diabetes, Type-1 and Type-2. 

  • Type-1 Diabetes is common in adults. This chronic disease occurs when the pancreas supplies less insulin to the body. Also, symptoms show quicker in type 1 than in type 2. Type 1 child patients also experience weight loss. 
  • Type-2 Diabetics experience a chronic illness where the body doesn’t produce insulin or resists it completely. 

What is type-2 Diabetes in children? 

Type-2 Diabetes in children was once adult-onset diabetes that is increasingly evident in children with obesity. It is an identified chronic disease that influences a child’s body to process sugar for energy. Ignored, Type-2 Diabetes can cause sugar to clump in the bloodstream, leading to severe long-term complications. 

Causes of Type-2 Diabetes In Children

Various factors can play a role in Type-2 Diabetes. However, the most typical ones are – 

  • Inadequate supply of insulin 
  • Cells block insulin from entering in, resulting in not enough sugar reaching the cell
  • Overweight 
  • High Fat And Carbohydrates Diet
  • Low weight at birth 
  • Preterm birth
  • Maternal Gestational Diabetes 

Symptoms of Type-2 Diabetes

It develops slowly, so much so that it has few to no visible symptoms. Following are the signs to look out for in Type-2 Diabetes in children –

  • More thirsty
  • Increase in urination
  • Magnified hunger
  • Fatigue 
  • Spotty vision
  • Resists healing of sores and infections 
  • Darkened patches of skin are usually found on the neck or armpits and the groin
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Numb/tingling feet or hands

Treatment For Type-2 Diabetes 

Type-2 diabetes in children can be treated with home remedies, medications and physical activities. A healthy balance of all should be determined through medical consultation. 

1. Home-based Remedies 

  • Dietary Changes 

Your child may be advised to decrease the meal proportion and not to clear the plate after every course. Instead of a component rich in carbohydrates, a fruit or vegetable might be suggested. The abundance of calories in drinks like juices or beverages will be asked to substitute with water. Fast food and restaurant take-outs are to be replaced with home-cooked meals. Indulge them in cooking. 

  • Physical Activity 

Ensure that they eat at the table rather than glued to the TV. With at least an hour of daily physical exertion for children under the age group of 5-17, their weight can be significantly brought under control. It also encourages the body to utilize insulin in more effective ways. 

2. Medications  

  • Metformin

It brings down the release of sugar into the bloodstream of a child’s liver. It’s consumed at the intervals of meals to ensure that the body makes effective use of insulin. 

  • Liraglutide  

Liraglutide is injected into the body to supply an increased amount of insulin from the pancreas when blood sugar levels spike. Nausea and diarrhea may be digestive side effects of Liraglutide.

  • Insulin 

A syringe with an insulin tube is used in extreme conditions where the child’s blood sugar levels are concerning. Injecting this allows sugar to pass in the cell and reduce sugar concentration in the bloodstream. For instance, a daily shot of long-acting insulin is prescribed to children at intervals of meals. Children on insulin injections are likely to be tested frequently, even four or more times a day. 

3. Medical Treatments For Type-2 Diabetes In Children 

  • Monitoring Blood Sugar Levels

This is the only possible way to keep a computerised track of the child’s blood sugar levels with predetermined target ranges. 

  • Tests 

Haemoglobin A1c test is a must once every three months. It measures the blood levels over the gap in time. This test is required to be done in the circumstances such as – 

  • The initial point of the treatment or when it’s modified
  • If treatment goals are not fulfilled
  • If they are using insulin
  • And if they are on any sulfonylurea drug. 

Plausible Complications

Complications that can arise from Type-2 Diabetes are as follows:

  • Heart Disease
  • Stroke
  • High Cholesterol 
  • Diabetic Retinopathy/eye damage
  • Diabetic Neuropathy/nerve damage 
  • Diabetic Nephropathy/kidney failure or damage
  • Complications concerning pregnancies 

Cautious Measures

Children sometimes fail to understand the complexity of this condition. It is upon the caretaker to ensure that the child is supervised. Here are some of the cautious measures to undertake –

  • Children taking insulin should put on bracelets that say “diabetes” on one side and “insulin-controlled” on the other so that this crucial information can be conveyed in a time of unfortunate urgency.
  • Make gradual changes in diet as effects take time to manifest. 
  • Have honest and one-on-one conversations with your child where they can openly address their concerns. 

Winding Up

Type-2 diabetes is a severe condition that seeks immediate medical assistance. Children with obesity tend to fall an easy prey. Insulin injections carry a possibility of needing it far into your old age.  

Timely consultation is, therefore, mandatory as it will prevent the possibility of major complications. Early diagnosis helps reduce risk and, in some cases, even avoids the condition entirely. With Ayu Health, you can confirm an appointment for Type-2 Diabetes in children at the earliest with the best professionals in this field. Contact today.

About the Author

Dr goel
Dr. S. Goel
MBBS PGDCM FID MBAHHM at Ayu Health | Website | + posts

Dr. S. Goel  is a renowned Internal Medicine Specialist currently practicing at Ayu Health Hospital, Bangalore.  He is a Specialist in Internal Medicine, Diabetes HTN, Paediatric Care, and Family Medicine.