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All you need to know about Kidney Stones: Types, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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All of us wish to stay away from some certain diseases. Kidney stones are among the top in that list, and can be quite painful in some cases. Kidney stones can be treated with proper medication and by hydrating yourself throughout which can enable stones to pass through urine. In very rare cases, surgery is required.

This article will talk about the types of kidney stones a person can have and available diagnosis and treatments.

Kidney stones are majorly caused when the crystals in the urine accumulate inside an organ instead of draining out. Its size can vary from the size of a sand grain to the size of a green pea. 

Types of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones mainly comprise of four types:

  1. Calcium Stones
  2. Struvite Stones
  3. Cystine Stones
  4. Uric Acid Stones

Calcium stones are the most common among Indians. Calcium stones are further made up of two types i.e., Calcium Oxalate and Calcium Phosphate. The former type is formed when the body excretes excess calcium and the latter one is formed due to the consumption of acidic foods i.e. when the pH level of the urine rises.

On the other hand, Struvite stones are not so common. Struvite stones are majorly found in women and are formed due to Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). Often, these types of stones are very painful as they grow large quite fast without any symptoms. However, these stones can be treated by treating the root of stone i.e., Urinary Tract Infection.

Cystine stones are ] formed due to the accumulation of cystine – a naturally formed compound in your body. Although rare and usually small in size, these stones can occur in both males and females. Cystine stones are formed due to your genetics and heredity disorders.

If your water intake is lower than normal, then you may develop Uric acid stones. As the name suggests, this stone is formed when the urine becomes acidic. If you are a fan of consuming non-vegetarian diet, especially meats, fish, and shellfish, then you are at a greater potential to attain Uric acid stones. 

Causes of Kidney Stones

There is no one specific cause, but several causes of kidney stones formation in your body.  Major reasons for kidney stones are:

Water deficiency

Lack of water in the body is one of the most significant causes of kidney stone. When a person doesn’t consume the recommended amount of water i.e., 7-10 glasses of water a day, then the risk of kidney stones increases. 

Sometimes, people, who are exposed to extreme heat or do extreme workouts without drinking enough water can also be at risk of kidney stones due to higher than usual water loss from their body. 

Unhealthy Diet

Oxalate contributes to 80% of the kidney stones because of its abundance in many kinds of foods. Limiting Oxalate-rich diet like potato chips, peanuts, chocolate, beets, spinach etc. can limit the odds of suffering from kidney stones.

Heredity Problems

If your immediate family members had kidney stones, then you’re much likely to develop another. However, prevention can diminish the risks of developing a stone.

Other Medical conditions

Obesity, Diabetes, and consuming stone developing medications can elevate your risk to form a kidney stone. Other medical conditions include renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, urinary tract infections and certain medications.

You should consult a doctor for the prevention methods and the drugs you consume.

Diagnosis for Kidney Stones

There are three types of tests available for diagnosing kidney stones. You must undergo these tests if your doctor suggests you.


In this process, the doctor can see the area of kidney stone and will be able to suggest effective treatments and medications. There are two types of imaging used in diagnosing:

  1. Ultrasound: This is the most common type of diagnosis in India as it is very effective in many cases. Ultrasound uses sound waves to image the inside area of your organs to find any abnormalities or foreign materials.
  1. CT Scan: This is an advanced X-ray process which can create images from different angles and produces meticulous images of the organs that a normal X-ray fails to do.

Blood test

This test is carried out to examine composition of oxalate, uric acid, calcium or any other substance in your blood. The test can inform  the doctor for suggesting medications, and treatments. 

Urine test

A urine test is performed to know the statistics of compounds in your body which can either be stone-forming or stone-preventing. If excessive stone-forming or less stone-preventing compounds are found, then the doctors can help you to treat it efficiently.

Treatment for Kidney Stones


Medicines are used when a doctor feels the stones aren’t draining out with excessive liquid consumption or change in the diet. Most patients are able to get treated for their kidney stone troubles through proper medication. 

Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

This procedure involves the breakdown of stone with high-frequency sound which is why it is also known as extracorporeal SWL. This procedure is effective for both small and medium stones. It is the least risky and doesn’t require any kind of surgery.


In this process, doctors generally use a scope which is inserted from the urethra to the bladder and ureter significantly. If the stone is small, the surgeon will remove it through a tiny basket and if the stone is comparatively big, a laser is attached to the scope and stone is broken down into pieces.


Your doctors will perform surgery when the pain is unbearable, stones are too large or are causing obstruction in the urinating path. Surgeries are used to remove stones which cannot be removed by any other treatments. 

There are very rare cases when a patient will need to undergo surgery to treat Kidney stones. Patients can get rid of stones with proper medication or some procedures mentioned above.

How can Ayu Health help?

We are India’s most trusted network of high-quality hospitals, and we have a team of pre-eminent urologists. We have successfully diagnosed and treated thousands of patients suffering from kidney stones.

Ayu Health offer all modern treatments for kidney stone. Our highly trained urologists specialize in Lithotripsy, Ureteroscopy, and Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy procedures. New age treatments (e.g., Laser RIRS) are encouraged wherever applicable.

For all procedures, Ayu Health offers fixed price packages which are communicated before admission. These include all typical charges associated with surgery. Our intent is for you to focus on getting better, not hidden costs.

ChargesAyu HealthOthers
Hospital Admission / Registration ChargeYesNo
Operation Theater ChargesYesYes
Surgery Charges (includes surgeon fees, anaesthetist fees)YesYes
All pre-surgery testsYesNo
Hospital Stay beyond standard durationYesNo
Drugs consumed during the hospital stayYesYes
Zero additional charges at the time of dischargeYesNo
Ayu Health offers a fixed price package for all surgical procedures

If you are looking for a leading urologist who can treat kidney stones, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at https://ayu.health/bangalore/speciality/Urology-3 to learn more.

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