What is Aneurysm and its types?
When an artery in the human body weakens, it leads to the formation of a large bulge or balloon-like shape, which medical science refers to as an aneurysm. The aneurysm can occur in any part of the body, however parts, where it is commonly detected, are the brain, aorta, legs, and spleen.
Aneurysms can be of different types:
Cerebral aneurysms: They tend to occur in the brain above the aorta when the vessels weaken and form a bulge. Cerebral aneurysms can vary in size. Small aneurysms are not problematic; however, the larger ones have the potential to put you in life-threatening conditions as they rupture and cause huge amounts of blood loss.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms: They are the most common aneurysms of the aorta known as “Triple-A”. When the blood pressure increases against the aorta’s wall, resulting in its rupture. Most of the time, the ruptures are mistaken for a heart attack.
But to characterize them, you should not overlook signs like chest & jaw pain, stabbing back or abdominal pain, difficulty in breathing, fainting and weakness on one side of the body.
Thoracic aortic aneurysms: They tend to develop in the part of the aorta that passes through the chest. Unfortunately, they are also asymptomatic like abdominal aortic aneurysms, and you are unlikely to know that it is lurking.
Yet, some signs make you suspect of thoracic aortic aneurysm’s rupture like shortness of breath, back pain, hoarseness and pain in the chest.
Causes of Aneurysm
Until today, the exact causes of aneurysms are uncertain, but doctors have recognized a specific set of factors that may lead to aneurysms.
- High blood pressure is a common aneurysm cause
- Damaged tissues in arteries can lead to bulging of an artery
- Fatty deposits can damage the artery
- The atherosclerotic disease can cause a plaque buildup in the arteries, which damages the arteries and restricts the free-flow of blood. Ultimately it ends in causing an aneurysm.
Symptoms of Aneurysm
Depending on the location and type of aneurysm, patients tend to suffer from different symptoms. Present in the brain or any other body part, aneurysms don’t show their signs and symptoms unless they rupture.
Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm typically include:
- Swelling and pain on that specific surface of the body
- Increased heart rate
- Lightheaded or feeling dizzy
If you observe any of the symptoms mentioned above, you should immediately set up an appointment with the doctor because any unnecessary delay can increase the complications and be fatal being one of them.
Treatments of Aneurysm
Depending on the location, severity, size and whether it is ruptured or close to bursting, the doctor recommends an optimal treatment for the aneurysm.
It could be any of the following approaches:
Doctors often recommend medicines for controlling blood pressure as hypertension can further weaken the aneurysm, increasing the risk of leakage and rupturing of the aneurysm. Medications are an optimal treatment for aneurysms that are not severe and not in the state to rupture. Yet doctors keep close attention on the state and size of aneurysms to avoid any complications.
Doctors prefer to perform emergency surgeries in case the brain aneurysms have a rupture. This surgical intervention helps in evacuating the blood and excess fluid from the brain.
For brain aneurysms that are at the risk of dissection or rupture, there are two treatments which are as follows:
- Endovascular Embolization: Doctors insert coils into the aneurysm to stabilize it and restrict the blood flow. The coils create a blood clot which ultimately destroys the aneurysm.
- Microvascular Clipping: In this treatment, doctors place a small titanium clip across the neck of the aneurysm, restricting the blood flow. Once it successfully destroys the aneurysm, the chances of its recurrence are minimal.
Flow diversion is the appropriate treatment for patients housing large or full aneurysms. Under this treatment, doctors use a device made of fine metal wires that help in guiding the blood flow through the artery and past the aneurysm. Ultimately the therapy successfully ends in the closure of an aneurysm.
Open repair is a surgical treatment in which the surgeon removes the aneurysm and a portion of the aorta. Then the section of the aorta is replaced with a graft.
In this treatment, the surgeon threads a catheter into the aneurysm and uses an x-ray to analyze the artery. After this, the surgeon inserts a stent or graft into the aneurysm. The graft or stent allows the blood to flow through the aorta in place of the aneurysm. The graft prevents the aneurysm from getting ruptured.
Similar to treatment, the recovery period varies from patient to patient. In the above-mentioned surgical treatments, the patient needs to have a week or two hospital stay. But, the total recovery can be up to 6 weeks.
What are the risks of not treating Aneurysm?
Housing an aneurysm, especially in the brain, is considered quite complicated and requires emergency hands-on care. Any unnecessary delay can make the situation worse and may lead to life-threatening risks.
Sudden rupture of the aneurysm may leave you in an incurable condition or lead to death. So, it is imperative that as soon as you suspect any of the symptoms of the aneurysm or you diagnose yourself with it, refer to the doctor as early as possible to avoid any further complications.
Choose Ayu Health
Ayu Health is India’s most trusted network of hospitals. Our in-house experts are among the best in their field and will identify the most optimal aneurysm treatment for the specific individual.
Our proficient team works effortlessly at driving successful outcomes for curing the aneurysm. Ayu Health hospitals are well equipped to carry out efficient surgeries for removing the bulge from the artery.
We carry all mandatory certifications from the government authorities, including NABH, India’s premier hospital accreditation authority, which accredits all the Ayu Health hospitals.
If you are looking for a leading doctor who can treat and perform effective aneurysm treatment and suggest the best methods to get the procedure just right for you in India, you can call +91 – 6366 100 800 or visit us at our website.
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About the Author
Dr. S. Goel
Dr. S. Goel is a renowned Internal Medicine Specialist currently practicing at Ayu Health Hospital, Bangalore. He is a Specialist in Internal Medicine, Diabetes HTN, Paediatric Care, and Family Medicine.